Sunday, May 26, 2019

Banana Peels as Alternative Toothpaste

Hydrogen peroxide is a bleaching agent with antimicrobial effects Gaffar, 1997 that has been utilise historically, at high concentrations, for the treatment of severe gingivitis. It is an effective bleaching agent that can penetrate enamel to bleach intrinsic stains. Papain is a naturally occurring enzyme that dissolves protein. There is few evidence to show that the combination of papain and citrate can excerpt superficial tooth staining.Sodium tripolyphosphate (STP) slows the growth of crystals and so inhibits the formation and growth of hard deposits of mineralized plaque (calculus). Kohut et al., 1997 At high concentrations, STP breaks down the stain matrix. It does this by removing calcium bridges between the stain molecules and surface proteins on the teeth, making the stain easier to remove.ABRASIVESAbrasives in toothpaste help remove stains and plaque as well as polish teeth. Common abrasives include silica and calcium carbonate. Toothpaste should be abrasive enough to re move plaque and stains, solely not so abrasive as to damage tooth enamel.TOOTH DESENSITISING INGREDIENTSPotassium nitrate is used in products to reduce hypersensitivity from exposed dentinal surfaces. Strontium agents based on steradian reduce the pain from sensitive teeth by blocking the tubules in the exposed dentine.FLAVOURS AND GUMSFlavours the natural oils and flavours used in oral healthcare products include wintergreen, eucalypt oil, menthol and thymol. It has been suggested that natural oils may work by reducing the levels of bacteriuml toxins in the plaque. Mandel 1988 Gums various gums are used to thicken toothpaste, but excessively to retain moisture, so the toothpaste does not dry out if the top is not replaced.CARIES PREVENTIVE INGREDIENTSFluoride may be included in oral health products in many forms, including atomic number 11 fluoride (NaF), sodium monofluorophosphate, amine fluoride and stannous fluoride. Fluoride strengthens the teeth against caries by making the enamel less soluble and by promoting remineralization. Manson & Eley, 1995At the same time, it interferes with the metabolism of plaque bacteria and so may help inhibit plaque acid production. Slots & Taubman, 1992 Calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) has been report to increase the amount of fluoride that is taken up into tooth enamel. Forward et al., 1979 CaGP present in the toothpaste has alike been reported to increase the amount of calcium and phosphate available for the remineralization of enamel. Duke et al., 1979ANTIBACTERIAL AND pH-MODIFYING INGREDIENTSChlorhexidine salts are antimicrobial agents that are effective against a wide variety of bacteria. Collins & Walsh, 1992 They have been reported to inhibit plaque acid production. Manson & Eley, 1995 Marsh, 1992Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent in toothpaste and mouthwash. At low concentrations it interferes with the uptake of nutrients into bacterial cells and inhibits their growth. At higher concentrations, triclosan is bactericidal. Zuckerbraum et al., 1998 Zinc salts utilise an antimicrobial effect by inhibiting a variety of bacterial enzyme reactions, Mandel, 1988 including the breakdown of sugar into plaque acid. Zinc, used in combination with other substances, has been shown to reduce calculus.It is also reported to be effective against halitosis as zinc ions have an affinity for southward compounds, reported to be primary components of bad breath, and convert offensive sulfur compounds to non-volatile substances. Waler, 1997 Baking soda (bicarbonate of soda) has the potential to modify the pH of plaque, and possibly the activity of the bacteria that cause tooth decay. It may also interfere with plaque metabolism and so reduce acid production. Legier-Vargas et al., 1995 Sodium lauryl sulfate is a foaming, cleaning and dispersing agent with antibacterial properties.

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